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(Reuters) – Somalia’s al Shabaab militants killed two city council officials, a former parliamentarian and a senior prison officer in Mogadishu, police and the rebel group said on Sunday. The al Qaeda-allied group has stepped up its gun and bomb attacks in the Horn of Africa nation over the past week. Six people were killed in an attack on a vehicle carrying...

The Somali Islamist movement al-Shabab has for the first time publicly killed a man for “insulting the prophet Muhammed”, witnesses have told the BBC. Crowds watched as the man was shot by a firing squad in the southern town of Jamame in the Lower Juba region. A BBC Somali service repoter says al-Shabab have previously killed people accused of spying or apostasy. Last...

As if Somalia wasn’t faced with enough challenges as of late, a new crisis is brewing on the horizon. Some brief background: The fragile country of 10 million continues to be plagued by the terrorism of the Islamist group al-Shabab, is facing a serious threat to its financial lifeline due to banks shutting down the servicing of remittance flows from Somalis abroad, and...

NAIROBI, Kenya (AP) — Nine security chiefs in the eastern town of Garissa have been suspended during a probe to determine if they failed to stop an extremist attack earlier this month in which 148 people died, Kenya’s interior minister has said. A thorough investigation is needed to determine if the individual officers are criminally culpable, Joseph Nkaissery...

BOSASSO (Reuters) – Somali militant group al Shabaab bombed a minivan carrying staff to a United Nations office in the semi-autonomous Puntland region on Monday, killing nine people including four from the global body’s children’s fund UNICEF, officials said. Images posted on social media show a blood-spattered white vehicle, its windows shattered and...

Amnesty International has joined the UN and others in urging Kenya to halt its plans to close the world’s largest refugee complex, arguing that forcing the 350,000 Somalis in Dadaab to return home would put their lives at risk and breach international law. Kenya ordered the closure of the camp last week after members of the Somali Islamist group al-Shabaab attacked Garissa...

The wall street journal: — NAIROBI, Kenya—The country’s latest bid to stamp out homegrown extremism stymied Idris Mohamed’s attempt this month to send $100 to his parents in Somalia. “We are closed for business until further notice,” read a sign on the door at a branch of Dahabshiil, the biggest of 13 money-transfer companies in Kenya that serve largely...

Mogadishu, Somalia (CNN)Gunmen stormed the headquarters of Somalia’s higher education ministry in the country’s capital Tuesday, sparking a gunbattle with security forces that left at least eight people dead and 10 others injured, police said. The Islamist militant group Al-Shabaab is responsible for the attack in the center of Mogadishu, group spokesman Abu...

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“I’ve never met a Somali who is not happy when Christians are killed,” says Maneno, 29, a teacher at Garissa University College. Maneno [not his real name] grew up in western Kenya. He studied from borrowed books with no eletric light, bound by the rise and fall of the sun. He dreamed of becoming “a very tough lawyer”, but the government, which paid his university...

NAIROBI (Reuters) – Kenya has suspended the licences of 13 Somali remittance firms following the massacre at a Kenyan university last week, Somalia’s central bank governor said on Wednesday, and Kenyan media reported that dozens of bank accounts had been frozen. The killing of 148 students by Somalia’s al Shabaab at Garissa, some 200 km (120 miles) from...

Somalia’s President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud says the Somalia-based al-Shabab militant group is a regional enemy that needs to be confronted. He was speaking exclusively to VOA Somali, three days after al-Shabab gunmen stormed and massacred 148 people at Garissa University in northeastern Kenya. The president expressed horror and sadness at the Garissa attack. He said...

Kenyan fighter jets have bombed positions of militant Islamist group al-Shabab in neighbouring Somalia, a military spokesman has told the BBC. The warplanes had targeted two camps in the Gedo region, used by al-Shabab to cross into Kenya, the spokesman added. This is Kenya’s first response to an al-Shabab assault which left 148 people dead at Garissa University last...

Kenyan fighter jets have bombed positions of militant Islamist group al-Shabab in neighbouring Somalia, a military spokesman has told the BBC. The warplanes had targeted two camps in the Gedo region, used by al-Shabab to cross into Kenya, the spokesman added. This is Kenya’s first response to an al-Shabab assault which left 148 people dead at Garissa University last...

Since its 2003 creation as a breakaway unit of Somali militant Islamists, al Shabab — Arabic for “the youth” — has grown into one of the world’s most notorious terror groups, drawing support and recruits from around the world, including Somali immigrants in America. Now aligned with al Qaeda, al Shabab has conducted deadly attacks across its homeland,...

NAIROBI (HOL)—-Hundreds of Somalis took to the streets in the Nairobi’s Somali-dominated Eastleigh neighborhood on Sunday to protest against the recent deadly attack on Garissa university, northeastern Kenya that killed at least 147 people. Angry protestors gathered in Eastleight on suburb of Nairobi in solidarity with Kenyans who are observing three days mourning...

GARISSA, Kenya (AP) — The son of a Kenyan government official has been identified as one of the gunmen who attacked a Kenyan college where 148 people were killed, authorities said Sunday. Abdirahim Mohammed Abdullahi, one of the Islamic extremists who attacked Garissa University College, was the son of a government chief in Mandera County, Interior Ministry spokesman...

RFI : — Somali press freedom advocates lashed out at Somalia government officials on Saturday after news 25 staff members at two radio stations were arrested over their coverage of the Garissa, Kenya, massacre on Thursday. “The National Union of Somali Journalists (NUSOJ) in Mogadishu “expressed alarm” regarding the media arrests in statement that was issued...

GARISSA, Kenya (Reuters) – Somali militants vowed on Saturday to wage a long war against Kenya and run its cities “red with blood” after the group’s fighters killed nearly 150 people during an assault on a Kenyan university. In the worst bloodshed in Kenya in nearly two decades, four al Shabaab gunmen went on a killing spree on Thursday, hunting...

The Washington Post :: — President Obama has cited the battle against al-Shabab militants in Somalia as a model of success for his relatively low-investment, light-footprint approach to counterterrorism. By some measures, it has paid dividends. U.S. drones have killed several of the Islamist group’s leaders, including two top planners in just the past month, a...

The Kenyan government has named Mohamed Kuno as the mastermind behind the Garissa University College attack and has put a $215,000 (£145,000) reward for his capture. He has several aliases but is best known as Mohamed Dulyadin, which means ambidextrous in the Somali language. His exact age is not known but is thought to be in mid-30s. Kuno is a Kenyan-Somali and was a...

NAIROBI (Reuters) – Kenya’s government said on Saturday it was “shocked and concerned” over the latest travel warnings issued by Britain and others and said security conditions in the east African country were improving. Britain told its citizens in an updated advisory issued on Friday to avoid most Kenyan coastal resorts, citing such threats as...

ADDIS ABABA- Ethiopia expects to start producing and exporting natural gas from under-developed reserves in its southeast by 2017, Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn said on Friday. Several firms have already acquired licenses to explore more than 40 blocks throughout Ethiopia in the past four years, the vast majority of them in the southeastern Somali Region. “Studies...

Seven people have been killed in an attack on a hotel popular with government officials in the Somali capital, Mogadishu. The African Union mission to Somalia, AMISOM, confirmed to Al Jazeera that there had been an explosion followed by gunfire at the Makka al-Mukarama hotel on Friday. An AMISOM spokesman said al-Shabab fighters got out of a car that then exploded. The...

Somalia’s federal government has interfered with the on-going diplomatic row between the Swedish government and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The row between the two countries emerged after Swedish Foreign Minister Margot Wallstrom criticized the record of human rights in the Kingdom. A statement from the Somalia’s foreign ministry released on Tuesday evening, stated...

Nairobi (AFP) – A Chinese restaurant in the Kenyan capital Nairobi has been shut down and its owners summoned by authorities after it emerged it was barring black patrons, reports said Wednesday. The restaurant fell into the spotlight of city authorities after furious residents took to social media to denounce an apparently racist policy of not allowing African patrons...

Minneapolis;- Startribune;– Spirited voices of protest rang out in downtown Minneapolis Sunday as an Ethiopian government leader prepared to address thousands of local supporters about the economic transformation of his country’s Somali region. Attendees making their way into Minneapolis Marriott City Center to listen to Abdi Mohamed Omar were greeted with boisterous...

Washington (AFP) – The United States has temporarily shuttered its embassy in Djibouti to the public to review security due to “ongoing threats,” US officials said Wednesday. The embassy in the Horn of Africa nation will be closed from Thursday, and will reopen for regular business on Sunday. “We regularly get information and we decided to close...

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Water Security” is herein described as the nexus between the availability, accessibility and use of water. The concept is defined as the ‘availability of, and access to water in sufficient quantity and quality to meet livelihood needs of all households throughout the year, without considering the needs of other users. Water Security is further described herein under ‘Securing Water for Production’. (Valerie Ndaruzaniye, 2011).  While ‘Water Insecurity’ refers to the exact opposite of the mentioned concept that is been the unavailability and inaccessibility of enough water to meet the livelihood need of all households in a period of one yearIn the Horn of Africa, increasing scarcity and degradation of water sources seriously threatens human well-being. The population in the region (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan, Djibouti, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda) has increased fourfold in the past 50 years and continues to grow rapidly (United Nations Population Division, 2010). Farmers need more water to feed more mouths and extended areas are needed for food production, at the expense of forest and pasture lands. With a high and stable number of pastoral communities and decreasing amount of pastureland, pressure on land and water grows. The mounting need for fertile soils and irrigated land is intensified by high international demands for food and energy. Investors from all over the world are ready to invest in commercial farming in Sudan, Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia. With inadequate soil and water management measures being taken, this growing pressure on natural resources leads to a decrease in the quality and quantity of soils, forests and water resources. (Eric van de Giessen: 2011)To put this region into water security context, according to Earth Trends, Environmental Information/World Resources Institute, Djibouti’s per capita is 460M3; Eritrea’s per capita is 701M3; Ethiopia’s per capita is 1,666M3 and Somalia’s per capita is 628 M3 (IRWR, 2011). According to the Falkenmark Water Stress Indicator, a country or a region is said to experience “water stress” when annual water supplies drop below 1,700 cubic meters per person per year. This means almost all parts of the Horn of Africa region can generally be termed as water stress region or facing water insecurityFigure 1, Map of the Horn of Africa region (Yellow): Source: Google Map 2010It is in this context; this paper will be exploring the water scarcity and stress in the horn of Africa region and how this will increase the vulnerability of the households and farmers as well as the impact it will have on the ability of the locals to utilize their socio-economic potentials. The paper will further attempt to assess the capacity of the existing institutions to manage the task at hand and finally the author referring to his personal knowledge and experience in the area as well as the reflections of the articles reviewed will hopefully suggest possible strategies for all the concerned stakeholders.In this review article, the author will attempt to examine five peer-reviewed articles, some with specific regional details and others more general outlook on water security, and will then try to create a holistic picture on the water situation on the ground as well as the efforts of those in charge in trying to mitigate the challenges of water security and enhance greater socio-economic well being for their people. Here are the articles the author intends to review for this paper: 1:Valerie Ndaruzaniye (2011) Water security in Ethiopia, Risk and vulnerability assessment. 2: Eric van de Giessen (2011) Horn of Africa Environmental Security Assessment-Institute for Environmental Security. 3: Simbarashe Govere et.al (2010) Coping with Water Scarcity in Eastern Africa; the role of intra-regional virtual water trade. 4) Declan Conway, et.al (2008) Rainfall and Water Resources Variability in Sub-Saharan Africa during the Twentieth Century 5) Noah Amin (2007) Water Scarcity In The Horn Of Africa And Its Deadly Consequences.In this part, the discussion will be mainly centered on the major factors that are causing water stress and scarcity in Africa generally and in particular the Horn. Almost all the articles reviewed for this paper mainly agree the major cause of the water stress in the region, but as we will later discover it, there are few country specific challenges with greater regional water security significance to it.In Sub-Saharan Africa, the Eastern African region, particularly the Horn of Africa, is considered highly geographically exposed to climate change and its impact over water. Out of 200 million people living in the Horn of Africa, 70 million are located in areas prone to extreme droughts leading to water insecurity and food shortages. In this Eastern African region, floods and droughts can occur in the same area within a very short period. Such events can exacerbate inadequate water availability in quality and quantity, sufficient enough to sustain agricultural activities and energy production. As a result, this often leads to famine and widespread disruption of socio-economic well being. (Valerie Ndaruzaniye, 2011)